Koşullu Cümleler, if clause If-cümleleri olarak da bilinir.
Bu cümleler aslında, if clause’ların bağımlı olduğu Komplex/Karmaşık Cümlelerdir.
Dört çeşit koşul cümlesi vardır. Her koşul cümlesi farklı bir zaman kalıbı içerir ve farklı bir anlam tonu ifade eder.
- If you freeze water, it becomes solid.
- If you study well, you will get good marks.
- If he went there, he would meet my friend.
- If she had asked me, I would have helped her.
- Koşul cümleleri, belirli bir koşulun sonucunu açıklar.
- if-cümlesi bize şartı söyler – If you ask me,
- Ana tümce bize sonucu söyler – I will help you.
- If Clause’dan sonra virgül kullanırız.
- Cümleye herhangi bir yan tümceyle, anlam değişikliği olmadan başlayabiliriz.
- Cümle ana tümceyle başlıyorsa virgüle gerek yoktur.
- If you permit him,he will explain it.
- He will explain it if you permit him.
- If you don’t eat well, you may become weak.
- You may become weak if you don’t eat well.
Her koşullu cümlede, iki bölüm buluruz – yani koşul yan tümcesi (ayrıca yan tümce / if-cümlesi olarak da bilinir) ve ana yan tümce.
Bazen, unless, when, so long as, as long as, in case vb. gibi kelimelerle veya ifadelerle değiştiririz.
Koşullu cümle türlerine ve koşullu cümle kurallarına bir göz atalım
Type – 0: Zero Conditional Sentence if clause
Sıfır koşullu cümle nedir?
Bilimsel gerçekler ve evrensel gerçekler gibi genel olarak olan şeyleri anlatmak için kullanılır. Bu cümlede, if ile when ve whenever’ı değiştirebiliriz.
- If-Clause: Present Simple (V1/V5)
- Main Clause: Present Simple (V1/V5)
- If you heat ice, it melts. (or)
- When you heat ice, it melts. (or)
- Ice melts if you heat it.
- If you wake up late, you go to school late. (or)
- When you wake up late, you go to school late. (or)
- You go to school late if you wake up late.
- If I have time, I go to the beach.
- Whenever I have time, I go to the beach.
- I shall go to the beach if I have time.
Daha fazla örnek
- If you leave the object, it drops.
- If you follow traffic rules, your life is safe.
- If you pour oil on water, it floats.
- If you take a shower, you feel fresh.
- The fines are avoided if you pay the fee in time.
- I feel sad if I am alone.
- You don’t use the mobile for a long time if you don’t charge it.
Type – I: Muhtemel Koşul Cümlesi if clause (Açık Koşul Cümlesi)
Muhtemel Koşul Cümlesi Nedir?
Belirli bir koşul yerine getirildiğinde gelecekte olması muhtemel olan durumları ifade etmek için kullanılır.
- If-Clause: Present Simple (V1/V5)
- Main Clause: Future Simple (shall/will/may/can + V1)
- If he works hard, he will get the first class.
- He will get the first-class if he works hard.
- If I see him, I will inform him about it.
- I will inform him about it if I see him.
- If you leave before nine, you can catch the train.
- You can catch the train if you leave before nine.
Daha fazla örnek
- If I go to the village, I will meet your parents.
- If you help me, I can certainly go there.
- If she gets a chance, she will prove herself.
- If you listen to me, I may explain it clearly.
- If my friend goes abroad, I can also plan to go with him
Present Continuous ve Present Perfect if cümlesiyle kullanılabilir.
- If you are going to purchase the car, you can use this discount coupon.
- Can you help me if you have finished your work?
Type – II: Olası Olmayan Koşul Cümlesi
if clause (Gerçek dışı/Şüpheli durumlar)
Olumsuz Koşullu Cümle Nedir?
Gerçekleşmesi şüpheli veya muhtemel olmayan durumları ifade etmek için kullanılır. Bu koşulda açıklanan olaylar hayal ürünü, gerçek dışı ve varsayımsaldır.
- If-Clause: Past Simple (V2)
- Main Clause: should/would/might/could + V1
- If he worked hard, he would get the first class.
- He would get the first class if he worked hard.
- If I saw him, I would inform him about it.
- I would inform him about it if I saw him.
- If you left before nine, you could catch the train.
- You could catch the train if you left before nine.
- If I had money, I would buy that big mansion.
- I would buy that big mansion if I had money.
Gerçek Olmayan Geçmiş:
- If I were you, I would not do that.
- If he were younger, he would join the Army.
- If he were the Prime Minister of India, he would help you.
If cümleciği ile were + to-infinitive kalıbını kullanabiliriz
- If I were to visit Kerala I would spend all my time in Munnar.
- If she were to write the exam again, she would certainly prepare well.
Daha fazla örnek
- If he asked me for help, I would not hesitate to help him.
- If they appointed me as a Manager, I would join the company immediately.
- If I got 1 crore in the share market, I would give you 50% of the amount.
- If I were you, I would help all our friends.
- If I had powers, I would jump like a Superman.
Type – III: Yerine Getirilmemiş Koşullu Cümle
Yerine Getirilmemiş Koşullu Cümle Nedir?
Gerçekleşmemiş ve şartı yerine getirmeyen geçmiş iki olayı ifade etmek için kullanılır.
- If-Clause: Past Perfect (had + V3)
- Main Clause: should/would/might/could + have + V3
- If he had worked hard, he would have got the first class.
- He would have got the first class if he had worked hard.
- (He did not work hard and so he did not get the first class)
- If I had seen him, I would have informed him about it.
- I would have informed him about it if I had seen him.
- (He did not see him and he did not inform him about it.)
- If you had left before nine, you could have caught the train.
- You could have caught the train if you had left before nine.
- (He did not leave before nine. He did not catch the train)
- If I had had money, I would have bought that big mansion.
- I would have bought that big mansion if I had had money.
- (I did not have money and so I did not buy that big mansion)
- tipteki cümleler şu şekilde de yazılabilir:
- Had he worked hard, he would have got the first class.
- Had I seen him, I would have informed him.
- Had he left before Nine, he could have caught the train.
- Had I had money, I would have bought that big mansion.
Daha fazla örnek
- If I had prepared well for the exams I could have written all my exams well.
- If you had given clear instructions, he would not have those mistakes.
- If she had watched that movie, she could have explained it to you.
- If Shive had participated in this event, he could have won the prize.
- Had he written his name on the book, I would not have taken it.
- Had you informed me of your arrival, I would have arranged everything.
INVERSION (devrik cümle)
If’i kullanmadan devrik cümle kurma
Bazen, varsayımsal koşullu ifadeler veya yerine getirilmeyen varsayımsal ifadeler, if kelimesi çıkarılarak ifade edilebilir.
Bu olduğunda, özne koşul yan tümcesindeki yardımcı fiili takip eder.
- Were the virusto reappear, hospitals would now be ready for it. (open hypothesis)
- = If the virus reappeared, hospitals would now be ready for it.
- orIf the virus were to reappear, hospitals would now be ready for it.
- Had Iknown, I’d never have gone there (unfulfilled hypothesis; implying “I did go there because I did not know”.)
- = If I had known, I’d never have gone there.
Should you need my advice,… (instead of: If you should need my advice,…)
Koşullu if cümlelerinde devrik cümle örnekleri
- Were Aric here he could have helped you.
- Were Johnhere I could have talked to him.
- Had I been there, I could have sung the song.
- Were Bill here he could have shown you the task.
- Were youhere you could have enjoyed the program.
- Had I come here earlier, I could have helped you.
- Had Iknown you before I could have told it to you.
- Had I seen you before I could have given it to you.
- Had Alana studied harder, she could have stood first.
- Should you had come here before you could have met Jim.
- Had Rick performed better he could have won the contest.
- Were Alice here she could have performed in the program.
- Should I had known it before, I could have let you know.
- Had Andrew a little patient, he could have done the task.
- Should Ihad come here before I could have completed the task.
- Were Peter with you he could have shown you the way to the shop.
- Had Peter started from home on time, he would not miss the flight.
- Had Jack not wasted so much time he could have completed the project.
- Should Bob had studied well he could have got good marks in the exam.
- Should Ben had spoken the truth, he would not face so many difficulties.
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